Phi (Blue line)

Phi is the angle of the interplanetary magnetic field that is being carried out by the solar wind. Phi is measured in the GSM (geocentric solar magnetospheric) coordinate system.Sudden and rapid changes in the Phi angle in conjunction with increased solar wind speeds and Bz fluctuations is common during a CME impact.


Temperature (Green line)

The temperature of the solar wind is measured in Kelvin units. A rise in solar wind plasma temperature is likely during an incoming interplanetary shockwave.


Plasma Density (Orange line)

When a Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) is directed towards our planet, the solar wind may carry a dense cloud of energetic protons past Earth and this can help contribute to increased geomagnetic activty around our polar regions. The denser the plasma, the more energetic it is said to be.


Earth also has a magnetic field which forms a bubble around our planet. This is called the Magnetosphere. This bubble deflects the solar wind.